vineri, 24 iulie 2009

Soft Power pe subcontinentul asiatic

Putere nucleară recunoscută oficial de americani (puşi în faţa faptului împlinit) şi temută de vecinii pakistanezi (mai fraieri, ce-i drept, dar deţinători, la rândul lor, a 100 buc. arme nucleare), cvasi-aliată a URSS în timpul Războiului Rece (încrederea pe care le-o acordau sovieticii mergând până acolo încât le vindeau, în mod exclusiv, cele mai recente avioane militare cu secera şi ciocanul aplicate pe fuzelaj), posesoarea unei economii cu creşteri pe 20 de ani consecutivi (care aproape au devenit plictisitori), ţara care, potrivit lui Henry Kissinger, merită un fotoliu de membru permanent în Consiliul de Securitate al O.N.U., locul de unde încep să vină producţii de muzică şi filme încadrabile în mainstream-ul culturii de masă mondiale...facem, în sfârşit, o pauză de respiraţie, după care precizăm că ne referim la India.

Uitasem: dincolo de multele calităţi de mai sus, India a dăruit planetei cel puţin doi tipi inteligenţi, contemporani cu noi - Fareed Zakaria şi Shashi Tharoor. Despre primul am mai scris. Tharoor (pe limba lor, ശശി തരൂര്‍) este un intelectual cu o tonă de distincţii, fost secretar general-adjunct al ONU pentru comunicare şi informaţii publice, care, de fix două luni, a preluat funcţia de ministru de externe al Indiei.

Tharoor (foto) are, ca tot omul, un blog personal, unde, pe 13 mai 2009, a trântit un articol cam lung, dar, aş zice, mi-nu-nat. În măsura în care, la 1,338,612,968 de locuitori, India mai dispune de încă 5 milioane de turboreactoare intelectuale similare, Occidentul va părăsi, în scurtă vreme, Formula 1 a puterilor globale.

Oarecum flatat de atenţia aparte acordată, astăzi, Indiei, în perspectiva viitorului ei statut de hiper-putere, indianul expune o doză rezonabilă de modestie şi luciditate. Articolul său - intitulat Indian Strategic Power: ‘Soft’ - explorează potenţialul şi valenţele reale ale Indiei cu privire la prezenţa ei globală în lume. Este, dacă vreţi, un fel de India - Land Of Choice (dacă am plagiat pe cineva, chiar mi se fracturează!).

Tharoor porneşte de la deja consacratul concept lansat de Joseph Nye, Jr. - Soft Power:
"The notion of soft power is relatively new in international discourse. The term was coined by Harvard’s Joseph Nye to describe the extraordinary strengths of the US that went well beyond American military dominance. Nye argued that “power is the ability to alter the behaviour of others to get what you want, and there are three ways to do that: coercion (sticks), payments (carrots) and attraction (soft power). If you are able to attract others, you can economize on the sticks and carrots.” Traditionally, power in world politics was seen in terms of military power: the side with the larger army was likely to win. But even in the past, this was not enough: after all, the US lost the Vietnam War, the Soviet Union was defeated in Afghanistan, and the US discovered in its first few years in Iraq the wisdom of Talleyrand’s adage that the one thing you cannot do with a bayonet is to sit on it. Enter soft power – both as an alternative to hard power, and as a complement to it. To quote Nye again: “the soft power of a country rests primarily on three resources: its culture (in places where it is attractive to others), its political values (when it lives up to them at home and abroad), and its foreign policies (when they are seen as legitimate and having moral authority).”

"For Nye, the US is the archetypal exponent of soft power. The fact is that the US is the home of Boeing and Intel, Google and the I-Pod, Microsoft and MTV, Hollywood and Disneyland, McDonald’s and Starbucks – in short, of most of the major products that dominate daily life around our globe. The attractiveness of these assets, and of the American lifestyle of which they are emblematic, is that they permit the US to persuade others to adopt the agenda of the US, rather than it having to rely purely on the dissuasive or coercive ‘hard power’ of military force."

"At first glance, this seems to be a prescription for reaffirming the contemporary reality of US dominance, since it is clear that no country scores more highly on all three categories than the US. But Nye himself admits this is not so: soft power has been pursued with success by other countries over the years. When France lost the war of 1870 to Prussia, one of its most important steps to rebuild the nation’s shattered morale and enhance its prestige was to create the Alliance Française to promote French language and literature throughout the world. French culture has remained a major selling point for French diplomacy ever since. The UK has the British Council, the Swiss have Pro Helvetia, and Germany, Spain, Italy and Portugal have, respectively, Institutes named for Goethe, Cervantes, Dante Alighieri and Camoes. Today, China has started establishing ‘Confucius Institutes’ to promote Chinese culture internationally, and the Beijing Olympics have been a sustained exercise in the building up of soft power by an authoritarian state. The US itself has used officially sponsored initiatives, from the Voice of America to the Fulbright scholarships, to promote its soft power around the world. But soft power does not rely merely on governmental action: arguably, for the US, Hollywood and MTV have done more to promote the idea of America as a desirable and admirable society than any US governmental endeavour. Soft power, in other words, is created partly by governments, and partly despite governments; partly by deliberate action, partly by accident."
"What does this mean for India? It means acknowledging that India’s claims to a significant leadership role in the world of the 21st century lie in the aspects and products of Indian society and culture that the world finds attractive. These assets may not directly persuade others to support India, but they go a long way toward enhancing India’s intangible standing in the world’s eyes."

Am încercat să extrag, din articol, două-trei idei principale, dar mi se pare imposibil, fiindcă e plin de substanţă în aproape fiecare frază. Cine vrea să încerce un rezumat, găseşte eseul lui Shashi Tharoor la adresa http://www.shashitharoor.com/articleDetail.php?id=104

Încă ceva: în Bucureşti, există un Minister de Externe. Nu cred că au timp acolo pentru lectura articolelor savante. Dar măcar cineva de la Planificare sau Afaceri Strategice sau alt compartiment se gândeşte oare la traiectoria verticală a Indiei şi la modul în care noi ne-am putea intersecta cu ea?
Detalii despre Shashi Tharoor, la http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shashi_Tharoor

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